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Dimensional Relationships of Recall and Recognition Measures with Selected Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Print Ads

By James H. Leigh, George M. Zinkhan, and Vanitha Swaminathan


"Recall and recognition each capture different ad aspects; both are needed to provide a more complete picture of ad effects."

Source: Journal of Advertising, Spring 2006, 35 (1), pgs.105-122.

Type of Promotional Material/Activity Tested: Print advertisements

Sample Population: Forty participants, selected as representative of the target audience for a particular ad. Participants recruited by an ad agency or enrolled in a continuing education program for middle managers at a large, urban state university.

Methodology: Predictive modeling used to examine the recall-recognition reciprocal relationship, the link between cognitive and affective response to ads, and how cognitive-affective aspects correlate with recall of details and recognition of brand or product. Ninety professionally produced print ads for services (e.g., airlines, hotels), durable goods (e.g., cars, clothing), and non-durable goods (e.g., soft drinks, film) were used.

Top Line Results:
Take Away: Print ad content, when perceived as meaningful,  results in consumers retaining ad details and being able to recall later when prompted. Contrarily, if a print ad’s strength is its attractiveness, consumers are not as likely to recollect ad details and facts, but instead to simply recall the brand name or product.

Complexity rating: 3 out of 3 (Complex statistical analysis scale: 1= none, 2= moderate, 3 = difficult)

This journal article available on a pay-per-view basis from the publisher M.E. Sharpe