Dimensional Relationships of Recall and Recognition Measures with Selected Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Print Ads
By James H. Leigh, George M. Zinkhan, and Vanitha Swaminathan
Source: Journal of Advertising, Spring 2006, 35 (1), pgs.105-122.
"Recall and recognition each capture different ad aspects; both are needed to provide a more complete picture of ad effects."
Type of Promotional Material/Activity Tested: Print advertisements
Sample Population: Forty participants, selected as representative of the target audience for a particular ad. Participants recruited by an ad agency or enrolled in a continuing education program for middle managers at a large, urban state university.
Methodology: Predictive modeling used to examine the recall-recognition reciprocal relationship, the link between cognitive and affective response to ads, and how cognitive-affective aspects correlate with recall of details and recognition of brand or product. Ninety professionally produced print ads for services (e.g., airlines, hotels), durable goods (e.g., cars, clothing), and non-durable goods (e.g., soft drinks, film) were used.
- Length of exposure to a single test ad (bundled with non-test ads)
- Reaction to meaningfulness and attractiveness of ad (using Wells Reaction Profile scale)
- Ability to predict ad’s content and structure (using the Cloze Procedure, every 6th word was removed from ad copy and participants filled in the blank with word they believed most appropriate)
- Print ad copy quality and product positioning
- Aided brand and fact recall Brand and fact recognition
Top Line Results:
Facts from test print ads are less likely to be recalled or correctly recognized than was brand information.
An ad’s perceived meaningfulness in conveying a clear-cut and convincing message is more strongly related to aided recall (e.g., product category provided as a cue) than to recognition.
The lack of a relationship between the ability to predict an ad’s content and structure and affective aspects (e.g., meaningfulness) suggests that difficulty in following the content and structure of ad copy does not necessarily hinder the meaning of the message - though the difficulty level does dampen ad enjoyment.
Print ad recall is influenced by cognitive and, to a lesser extent, by emotional factors. Conversely, print ad recognition is influenced by affective and, to a lesser extent, by cognitive factors.
- "Recall and recognition each capture different ad aspects; both are needed to provide a more complete picture of ad effects.”
Take Away: Print ad content, when perceived as meaningful, results in consumers retaining ad details and being able to recall later when prompted. Contrarily, if a print ad’s strength is its attractiveness, consumers are not as likely to recollect ad details and facts, but instead to simply recall the brand name or product.
Complexity rating: 3 out of 3 (Complex statistical analysis scale: 1= none, 2= moderate, 3 = difficult)
This journal article available on a pay-per-view basis from the publisher M.E. Sharpe.