Displacement and Reinforcement Effects of the Internet and Other Media as Sources of Advertising Information
By James C. Tsao and Stanley D. Sibley
"As a source of advertising information, print media has not been displaced by Internet advertising. Instead, consumers relate experiencing a complementary, interrelated relationship between Internet ads and print ads."Source: Journal of Advertising Research, May 2004, 44(01), pgs 126-142.
Type of Promotional Material/Activity Tested: The extent to which consumer use of the Internet displaces or reinforces the use of other media as sources of advertising information. Sample Population: 1,960 U.S. adults from a Midwest state: 51% male and 49% female, average age of 49, 44% with one or more children, 66% with college degrees, and 58% employed full-time. Respondents' income varied from low to high with the majority being middle-class. Methodology: Predictive modeling of responses from attitudinal measurement questionnaire. Metrics: Evaluation of 10 media providing advertising information on products and services: billboards, daily newspapers, direct mail, free community papers, in-store advertising sheets, Internet, magazines, radio, TV, and free weekly newspapers. Independent Variables
- Attitudes toward different media as source of advertising information
- Usage rate of different media for advertising
- Forecasted usage of different media for advertising information
- Attitudes toward Internet advertising
- Usage rate of Internet advertising
- Forecast usage of Internet advertising
- Consumers with favorable opinions towards Internet advertising also express markedly more positive attitudes than their counterparts toward all other forms of advertising media tested (newspapers, direct mail, magazines, TV, radio, etc.).
- The more favorable the attitude towards billboards, magazine ads, and radio commercials, the more likely consumers are to use Internet advertising. Furthermore, consumers with more favorable attitudes towards direct mail are twice as likely to use Internet advertising.
- With the exception of magazines, there is a significant difference between Internet users and non-Internet users' attitudes towards different media ads: Internet users express a high positive attitude towards radio, direct mail, and billboard advertising; Non-Internet users are more favorable of daily newspapers, free community papers, and in-store ads.
- Attitudinally, consumers most receptive to direct mail are also users of Internet advertising, yet, behaviorally, there is no significant difference in usage of direct mail between Internet advertising users and non-users.
- Based on the study’s analysis, a cross media marketing strategy maximized to reach consumers would employ a combination of ad media demonstrating a positive correlation (reinforcement) with Internet ad use: direct mail, magazines, billboards, and TV.
Take-Away: As a source of advertising information, print media has not been displaced by Internet advertising. Instead, consumers with a favorable attitude and/or frequent use of various print media advertising -- such as billboards, direct mail, and magazines -- relate experiencing a complementary, interrelated relationship between Internet ads and print ads.
Complexity rating: 2 out of 3 (Complex statistical analysis scale: 1= none, 2= moderate, 3 = difficult)
Source: Displacement and Reinforcement Effects of the Internet and Other Media as Sources of Advertising Information